Storing Objects in the Session¶
This example shows you how you can persist objects across requests in the session object.
As was discussed previously , instances
Session last as long as
the notional session itself does. Each time
Request.getSession is called, if the session
for the request is still active, then the same
Session instance is
returned as was returned previously. Because of this,
instances can be used to keep other objects around for as long as the session
It’s easier to demonstrate how this works than explain it, so here’s an example:
>>> from zope.interface import Interface, Attribute, implementer >>> from twisted.python.components import registerAdapter >>> from twisted.web.server import Session >>> class ICounter(Interface): ... value = Attribute("An int value which counts up once per page view.") ... >>> @implementer(ICounter) ... class Counter(object): ... def __init__(self, session): ... self.value = 0 ... >>> registerAdapter(Counter, Session, ICounter) >>> ses = Session(None, None) >>> data = ICounter(ses) >>> print(data) <__main__.Counter object at 0x8d535ec> >>> print(data is ICounter(ses)) True >>>
What? , I hear you say.
What’s shown in this example is the interface and adaption-based
Session exposes for persisting state. There are
several critical pieces interacting here:
ICounteris an interface which serves several purposes. Like all interfaces, it documents the API of some class of objects (in this case, just the
valueattribute). It also serves as a key into what is basically a dictionary within the session object: the interface is used to store or retrieve a value on the session (the
Counterinstance, in this case).
Counteris the class which actually holds the session data in this example. It implements
ICounter(again, mostly for documentation purposes). It also has a
valueattribute, as the interface declared.
registerAdaptercall sets up the relationship between its three arguments so that adaption will do what we want in this case.
Adaption is performed by the expression
ICounter(ses). This is read as : adapt
ICounter. Because of the
registerAdaptercall, it is roughly equivalent to
Counter(ses). However (because of certain things
Sessiondoes), it also saves the
Counterinstance created so that it will be returned the next time this adaption is done. This is why the last statement produces
If you’re still not clear on some of the details there, don’t worry about it
and just remember this:
ICounter(ses) gives you an object you can
persist state on. It can be as much or as little state as you want, and you can
use as few or as many different
Interface classes as you want on a
With those conceptual dependencies out of the way, it’s a very short step to actually getting persistent state into a Twisted Web application. Here’s an example which implements a simple counter, re-using the definitions from the example above:
from twisted.web.resource import Resource class CounterResource(Resource): def render_GET(self, request): session = request.getSession() counter = ICounter(session) counter.value += 1 return (b"<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><meta charset='utf-8'>" b"<title></title></head><body>" b"Visit #" + str(counter.value).encode("utf-8") + b" for you!")
Pretty simple from this side, eh? All this does is
Request.getSession and the adaption from above, plus some
integer math to give you a session-based visit counter.
Here’s the complete source for an rpy script based on this example:
cache() from zope.interface import Interface, Attribute, implementer from twisted.python.components import registerAdapter from twisted.web.server import Session from twisted.web.resource import Resource class ICounter(Interface): value = Attribute("An int value which counts up once per page view.") @implementer(ICounter) class Counter(object): def __init__(self, session): self.value = 0 registerAdapter(Counter, Session, ICounter) class CounterResource(Resource): def render_GET(self, request): session = request.getSession() counter = ICounter(session) counter.value += 1 return (b"<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><meta charset='utf-8'>" b"<title></title></head><body>" b"Visit #" + str(counter.value).encode("utf-8") + b" for you!") resource = CounterResource()
One more thing to note is the
cache() call at the top
of this example. As with the previous example where this came up, this rpy script is stateful. This
time, it’s the
ICounter definition and
registerAdapter call that need to be executed only
once. If we didn’t use
cache , every request would define
a new, different interface named
ICounter . Each of these
would be a different key in the session, so the counter would never
get past one.