# Copyright (c) Twisted Matrix Laboratories.
# See LICENSE for details.
"""
Example of doing arbitrarily long calculations nicely in Twisted.
This is also a simple demonstration of twisted.protocols.basic.LineReceiver.
This example uses generators to do the calculation. It also tries to be
a good example in division of responsibilities:
- The protocol handles the wire layer, reading in lists of numbers
and writing out the result.
- The factory decides on policy, and has relatively little knowledge
of the details of the protocol. Other protocols can use the same
factory class by intantiating and setting .protocol
- The factory does little job itself: it is mostly a policy maker.
The 'smarts' are in free-standing functions which are written
for flexibility.
The goal is for minimal dependencies:
- You can use runIterator to run any iterator inside the Twisted
main loop.
- You can use multiply whenever you need some way of multiplying
numbers such that the multiplications will happen asynchronously,
but it is your responsibility to schedule the multiplications.
- You can use the protocol with other factories to implement other
functions that apply to arbitrary lists of longs.
- You can use the factory with other protocols for support of legacy
protocols. In fact, the factory does not even have to be used as
a protocol factory. Here are easy ways to support the operation
over XML-RPC and PB.
class Multiply(xmlrpc.XMLRPC):
def __init__(self): self.factory = Multiplication()
def xmlrpc_multiply(self, *numbers):
return self.factory.calc(map(long, numbers))
class Multiply(pb.Referencable):
def __init__(self): self.factory = Multiplication()
def remote_multiply(self, *numbers):
return self.factory.calc(map(long, numbers))
Note:
Multiplying zero numbers is a perfectly sensible operation, and the
result is 1. In that, this example departs from doc/examples/longex.py,
which errors out when trying to do this.
"""
from twisted.internet import defer, protocol
from twisted.protocols import basic
def runIterator(reactor, iterator):
try:
next(iterator)
except StopIteration:
pass
else:
reactor.callLater(0, runIterator, reactor, iterator)
def multiply(numbers):
d = defer.Deferred()
def _():
acc = 1
while numbers:
acc *= numbers.pop()
yield None
d.callback(acc)
return d, _()
class Numbers(basic.LineReceiver):
"""Protocol for reading lists of numbers and manipulating them.
It receives a list of numbers (separated by whitespace) on a line, and
writes back the answer. The exact algorithm to use depends on the
factory. It should return an str-able Deferred.
"""
def lineReceived(self, line):
try:
numbers = [int(num) for num in line.split()]
except ValueError:
self.sendLine(b"Error.")
return
deferred = self.factory.calc(numbers)
def encodeNumber(num):
return str(num).encode("ascii")
deferred.addCallback(encodeNumber)
deferred.addCallback(self.sendLine)
class Multiplication(protocol.ServerFactory):
"""Factory for multiplying numbers.
It provides a function which calculates the multiplication
of a list of numbers. The function destroys its input.
Note that instances of this factory can use other formats
for transmitting the number lists, as long as they set
correct protoocl values.
"""
protocol = Numbers
def calc(self, numbers):
deferred, iterator = multiply(numbers)
from twisted.internet import reactor
runIterator(reactor, iterator)
return deferred
if __name__ == "__main__":
from twisted.internet import reactor
reactor.listenTCP(1234, Multiplication())
reactor.run()